New Study on Biomethane Production Potentials in the EU

Release date: July 11, 2022

Gas for Climate publishes updated biomethane production potentials for EU Member States, assessing the feasibility of the 35 bcm REPowerEU target for 2030 and providing outlook to 2050.

Today, the Gas for Climate consortium published an update on biomethane production potentials in EU Member States , building on the renewed ambition of the EU to accelerate biomethane production and the advancements in technology.

The study shows that enough sustainable feedstocks are available in the EU-27 to meet the REPowerEU 2030 target (35 bcm). In our estimate, up to 41 bcm of biomethane in 2030 and 151 bcm in 2050 could be available. This is significant as the current (2020) EU natural gas consumption is 400 bcm (of which 155 bcm was imported from Russia).

As such, biomethane can play an important role in meeting the EU’s 2030 GHG reduction target and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. Additionally, biomethane can increase European energy security by reducing the dependency on Russian natural gas and can alleviate part of the energy cost pressure on households and companies. To achieve this, significant scaling up is required both in the short- and long-term as today, 3 bcm of biomethane and 15 bcm of biogas are produced in the EU.

Whereas Gas for Climate previously estimated the sustainable supply potential in the EU-27 (and UK) at 35 bcm in 2030 and 95 bcm by 2050, for the recent publication our sustainable production potentials were updated to reflect the most recent developments. In the paper, a unified methodology is applied to identify both the short- and long-term potential of biomethane production in the EU, Norway, Switzerland and the UK, based on sustainable feedstocks.

Overall potentials

Enough sustainable feedstocks to produce up to biomethane 41 bcm in 2030 and 151 bcm in 2050 (EU-27).

Breakdown of the overall potentials

  • A potential of 38 bcm is estimated for anaerobic digestion in 2030 for EU-27 increasing to 91 bcm in 2050. The top 5 countries in both 2030 and 2050 consistently include France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. Key sustainable feedstocks to achieve these potentials are manure, agricultural residues and sequential cropping, where the latter dominates the potential for 2050.
  • A potential of 3 bcm is estimated for thermal gasification in 2030 for EU-27 increasing to 60 bcm in 2050. The top 5 countries in 2030 and 2050 consistently include France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and Italy.
  • Even more biomethane potential can be unlocked by looking at additional feedstocks (e.g. biomass from marginal or contaminated land and seaweed, as noted in the REPowerEU plan), and technologies (e.g. hydrothermal gasification of wet feedstocks, including organic wastes and residues).

This is the first analysis of specific biomethane potentials per country that has applied a unified methodology at the European level. Therefore, following the renewed biomethane ambition by the EU, the 35 bcm target needs to be pro-actively translated by Member States into national targets incorporated into their National Climate and Energy Plans and appropriate measures (e.g. permitting, financing, certification, etc) enacted to scale up their sustainable domestic biomethane industries.

Read the full publication:

Notes for Editors

Gas for Climate was initiated in 2017 to analyse and create awareness about the role of renewable and low carbon gas in the future energy system in full compliance with the Paris Agreement target to limit global temperature increase to well below 2 degrees Celsius. To this end, the entire economy has to become (net) zero carbon by mid-century.

The Gas for Climate group consists of eleven leading European gas transport companies (DESFA, Enagás, Energinet, Fluxys Belgium, Gasunie, GRTgaz, Nordion, ONTRAS, OGE, Snam, and Teréga) and three renewable gas industry associations (European Biogas Association, Consorzio Italiano Biogas and German Biogas Association).

The CEOs of the twelve members are: Piero Gattoni (Consorzio Italiano Biogas), Harm Grobrügge (European Biogas Association), Horst Seide (German Biogas Association), Maria Rita Galli (DESFA), Marcelino Oreja Arburúa (Enagás), Thomas Egebo (Energinet), Pascal De Buck (Fluxys), Han Fennema (Gasunie), Thierry Trouvé (GRTgaz), Ralph Bahke (ONTRAS), Jörg Bergmann (OGE), Stefano Venier (Snam), Hans Kreisel (Nordion Energi), Dominique Mockly (Teréga).

In a series of reports over the past few years, the Gas for Climate consortium showed that renewable and low-carbon gases have an important role to play in the EU energy system and that existing gas infrastructure and knowledge can support the transition to an energy system with net-zero CO₂ emissions at the lowest societal cost. The Gas for Climate vision and pathways towards 2050 cover all energy-intensive economic sectors and demonstrate, along with the crucial role of renewable and low-carbon gases, that current policies and trends are not yet sufficient to realise Europe’s climate ambitions for 2030 and 2050 Policy and market actions are required to speed up the transition, and progress of necessary developments must be closely monitored to ensure the transition is achieved at the lowest societal costs.

For more information, please contact the Gas for Climate member organisations:

Consorzio Italiano Biogas
Caterina Nigo
Tel: +39 0371/4662633
Mail: a.vitale@consorziobiogas.itEnagás
Alexandra Issacovitch
Tel: +34 917099442

Anastasia Chatziantoniou
Tel: +30 213 088 4058

Sylvester Boe Toldsted
Tel: +4527644913

European Biogas Association
Angela Sainz Arnau
Tel: +32 400 1089

Fluxys Belgium
Laurent Remy
Tel: +32 2 282 74 50

Nicolas Kraus
Tel: +32 2 234 63 55

Lilia Brandusa
Tel: +33 (0)7 62 59 13 29
Mail: lilia.brandusa@grtgaz.comNordion Energi
Saila Horttanainen

Johannes Stolle
Tel: +49 341271112055

Ermal Ndini
Tel: +49 151 11519257

Andrea Giachi
Tel: +393473872658

Mathilde Woringer
Tel: +33 5 59 13 32 52

German Biogas Association
Stefan Rauh
Tel: +49 (0)8161 98 46 804

About CIB – Consorzio Italiano Biogas
CIB aggregates and represents the agricultural biogas and biomethane value chain in Italy. Formed in March 2006, CIB provides information to its members to improve, optimize and innovate biogas production processes, fostering greener and efficient low carbon farming practices through its flagship initiative Biogasdoneright®. CIB brings together farmers that run biogas plants, industrial companies that supply equipment and technology, companies operating in the fields of agriculture, consultancy, mechanization and transports; research centers and agricultural associations that supply data and promote anaerobic digestion in agriculture. CIB is also a founding member of EBA -the European Biogas Association. For more information, go to

About Enagás
Enagás is a TSO (Transmission System Operator) with 50 years’ experience in the development, operation and maintenance of energy infrastructures, operating in eight countries: Spain, the United States, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Albania, Greece and Italy. The company has more than 12,000 kilometres of gas pipelines, three strategic storage facilities and eight regasification plants. In Spain, it is the main natural gas transporter and the Technical Manager of the Gas System. Enagás is firmly committed to the decarbonisation process and therefore is bounded to the development of projects to promote renewable gases – green hydrogen and biomethane – sustainable mobility and energy efficiency, among other areas. The company is a world leader in its sector in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI), according to the latest revision of this index. For more information, go to

About Energinet

Energinet was founded in 2004 as an independent public enterprise owned by the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities. Energinet owns, operate and develop the transmission systems for both electricity and natural gas in Denmark. Energinet’s aim is to enable a cost-effective transition of the energy systen to 100 % renewable energy while maintaining the high level of security of supply. For more information, go to

About European Biogas Association
Founded in February 2009, EBA is the leading European association in the field of biogas and biomethane production covering the anaerobic digestion and gasification industries. Committed to the active promotion of the deployment of sustainable biogas and biomethane production and use throughout Europe, EBA has created a wide network of established national organisations, scientific institutes and companies. In 2018, the association counted more than 90 members from all over Europe and has established co-operation with biogas associations from outside Europe. For more information, go to

About Fluxys Belgium
Fluxys Belgium is the independent operator of both the natural gas transmission grid and gas storage infrastructure in Belgium. Through its wholly owned subsidiary Fluxys LNG, the company also operates the Zeebrugge liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal. Fluxys Belgium is a subsidiary of Fluxys, the gas infrastructure group based in Belgium and active across Europe. We are committed to continue building a greener energy future for the generations to come. People, industry and societies all need energy to thrive and progress. Fluxys Belgium accommodates this need: we put energy in motion through our infrastructure. We move natural gas while paving the way to transport in our infrastructure hydrogen, biomethane or any other carbon-neutral energy carrier of the future. For more information, go to

About Gasunie
Gasunie is a European energy infrastructure company. The company provides the transport of natural gas and green gas via its subsidiaries Gasunie Transport Services B.V. (GTS) in the Netherlands and Gasunie Deutschland in Germany. The company also offers other services in the energy infrastructure field, including hydrogen, heat, CCS, gas storage and LNG. Gasunie commits itself to accelerating the energy transition and to the realization of a climate neutral energy supply. For more information, go to

About German Biogas Association

The German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas) has joined the Gas for Climate initiative. This means that the sector association from the country with the most biogas plants and the largest installed capacity in Europe will be more involved in the joint effort to achieve the 2-degree target of the Paris Agreement. In order to reach the target, the scale-up and switch to green gases are seen as key components. Their knowledge and experience of biogas and biomethane are seen as a valuable addition to the consortium. For more information, go to

About GRTgaz
GRTgaz is a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems and a leading European gas transmission system operator. In France, GRTgaz owns and operates more than 35,000 km of buried pipes and 26 compression stations used to ship gas between suppliers and consumers. GRTgaz is committed to ensuring security of supply to consumers, connecting territories and communities with great care for the environment. GRTgaz delivers innovative and accessible solutions to accelerate and secure a successful energy transition by connecting the energies of tomorrow, driving the growth of renewables and new uses for gas while fostering synergy between electricity and gas systems. For more information, go to

About Hellenic Gas Transmission System Operator (DESFA) S.A. is responsible for the operation, management, use and development of the Hellenic National Natural Gas System. DESFA is a reliable partner in the framework of the ongoing international energy projects in Southeastern Europe. DESFA is committed to support the fulfilment of the National Energy & Climate Plans targets, by planning its energy transition towards the decarbonize economy. For additional information, please visit the following website:

About Nordion Energi
Nordion Energi, is specialized in gas infrastructure with the aim to drive the energy transition and becoming the first gas grid in Europe with 100% green gas. We operate the gas grid in Sweden, which extends from Dragör in Denmark to Stenungsund in Sweden and transports energy to distributors and customers with direct links. The gas grid supplies 33 municipal areas and several combined heat and power plants and is also used in more than 34,000 households and in the transport sector. For more information, go to or

ONTRAS Gastransport GmbH is a German gas transmission system operator in the European gas transport system based in Leipzig. ONTRAS operates Germany’s second-largest gas transmission system, with approximately 7,000 km of pipelines and about 450 interconnection points. The green side of ONTRAS has been at the heart of our company culture for many years. Our goal is to reach a 100% carbon-neutral gas supply by 2050. There are currently 22 biogas plants connected to the ONTRAS transmission network injecting 180 million cubic meters of biomethane every year – approximately 17% of the total German biomethane in the gas network. Furthermore, two power-to-gas facilities are currently connected to the ONTRAS network converting electricity generated by wind turbines into hydrogen which is then injected into our grid. We work together with a variety of partners to examine the possible application of hydrogen and explore the massive potential of our own infrastructure for the transport of renewable energy. For more information, go to

About OGE
With a gas transmission system spanning 12,000 kilometres, OGE, seated in Essen, is among Europe’s leading transmission system operators. Two thirds of natural gas consumed in Germany flows through our pipeline system, comprising about 100 compressor units and about 1100 exit points. All over the country, our approximately 1,450 staff ensure safe, environmentally friendly and customer-oriented gas transmission. We also offer the technical and commercial services to go with it, and we provide commercial, technical and IT services for other companies on the basis of third-party arrangements. Moreover, we actively support the European gas market and work together with the European distribution network operators to create the prerequisites for transnational gas transportation and trading. For more information, go to

About Snam
Snam is one of the world’s leading energy infrastructure operators and one of the largest Italian listed companies in terms of market capitalization. Through its international subsidiaries, it also operates in Albania, Austria, China, France, Greece, India, UAE and UK. The company has the largest natural gas transmission network and storage capacity among European peers and is also one of the main operators in regasification. As part of a €7.4 billion plan to 2024, Snam invests to make its infrastructure hydrogen ready and develop new energy transition businesses such as sustainable mobility, biomethane and energy efficiency. Snam also aims to enable and promote the development of hydrogen to foster decarbonisation in the energy sector and industries. Snam’s business model is based on sustainable growth, transparency, the promotion of talent and diversity and the social development of local areas through the initiatives of Fondazione Snam. For more information about the company, please visit

About Teréga
Teréga has a network of more than 5,000 km of pipelines and two underground storage facilities, representing 16% and 24% of national capacity respectively. Teréga  is a major player in energy and has been located in South-West France for over 70 years. As part of its public-service obligations, Teréga transports natural gas to more than 400 delivery stations in the most secure, cost-effective, and reliable conditions. Teréga enjoys a strategic position in Europe, where it provides interconnections that guarantee security of supply. Teréga is aware of the vital role of renewable gases in the energy transition, and wants to help accelerate the green revolution through increasing involvement in biomethane, natural gas for vehicles, and Power to Gas. For more information, go to

For questions about the study, please reach out to: Jan Cihlar – 

About Guidehouse
Guidehouse is a leading global provider of consulting services to the public and commercial markets with broad capabilities in management, technology, and risk consulting. We help clients address their toughest challenges with a focus on markets and clients facing transformational change, technology-driven innovation and significant regulatory pressure. Across a range of advisory, consulting, outsourcing, and technology/analytics services, we help clients create scalable, innovative solutions that prepare them for future growth and success. Headquartered in Washington DC, the company has more than 7,000 professionals in more than 50 locations. Guidehouse is led by seasoned professionals with proven and diverse expertise in traditional and emerging technologies, markets and agenda-setting issues driving national and global economies. For more information, please visit:


  1. Sequential cropping is the cultivation of a second crop before or after the harvest of main food or feed crop on the same agricultural land during an otherwise fallow period. Sequential cropping does not impact existing food or feed markets as no existing food or feed is used for biogas.
  2. The deployment of energy crops should be prioritised on abandoned and degraded land.
  3. Municipal solid waste is first pre-processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF). Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed from the waste, leaving biogenic material and plastics.
  4. Gas for Climate (2021), The future role of biomethane (Link)
  5. Dutch TTF natural gas price (Link)
  6. Gas for Climate (2021), The future role of biomethane (Link)
  7. EBA (2021), Gasification – A Sustainable Technology for Circular Economies (Link)
  8. Gas for Climate (2021), The future role of biomethane (Link)
  9. Biomethane replaces mainly natural gas, with a lifecycle emission of about 75 g CO2eq/MJ, and partially diesel (and other fuels) with a lifecycle emission of 95 g CO2eq/MJ or above.
  10. 350 TWh on basis of gross calorific value equals 315 TWh on basis of net calorific value, or 1,134 PJ. The 100 g CO2eq/MJ emission reduction is expressed on basis of Lower Heating Value (=net calorific value). 1,134 PJ * 97 g/MJ = 113 Mtonne CO2eq emissions avoided.
  11. IEA Bioenergy (2020): Production of food grade sustainable CO2 from a large biogas facility (Link)
  12. Based on current EU average salaries in this sector
  13. Gas for Climate (2022) Biomethane production potentials in the EU (Link)
  14. Gas for Climate (2022) Biomethane production potentials in the EU (Link)
  15. European Commission (2018). In-depth analysis in support of the Commission Communication COM (2018) 773. A Clean Planet for all. A European long-term strategic vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy.
  16. Eurostat (2022) Natural gas supply statistics (Link)
  17. Gas for Climate (2022) Biomethane production potentials in the EU (Link)
  18. European Commission (2022), Commission Staff Working Document, SWD(2022) 230 final, Implementing the REPowerEU Action Plan: Investment needs, hydrogen accelerator, and achieving the bio-methane targets (Link)
  1. Eurostat (2020), Final energy consumption by sector, EU, 2020 (Link)
  2. Feedstocks refer to raw materials fed into a process for conversion into another product
  3. The Guardian (2021), Why it’s so hard to electrify shipping and aviation (Link)
  4. Commission (2020), Energy efficiency in buildings (Link)
  5. Eurostat (2020), Final energy consumption in the residential sector by use (Link)
  6. Gas for Climate (2019), The optimal role for gas in a net-zero emissions energy system (Link)
  7. DG ENER (2018) Request for services n° ENER/B2/2018-260 – Potentials of sector coupling for the EU natural gas sector – Assessing regulatory barriers.
  8. Sector coupling: how can it be enhanced in the EU to foster grid stability and decarbonise? (Link)
  9. European Commission (2020). A hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe (Link)
  10. European Commission (2022). Commission Staff Working Document, SWD (2022) 230 final, Implementing the REPowerEU Action Plan: Investment needs, hydrogen accelerator, and achieving the bio-methane targets (Link)
  11. Gas for Climate recently assesses the options the facilitate the 10 Mt import target by 2030. Gas for Climate (2022), Facilitating hydrogen imports from non-EU countries (Link)
  12. Gas for Climate (2022) Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission system (Link)
  13. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission infrastructure (Link)
  14. Guidehouse (2020) European Hydrogen Backbone (Link)
  15. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission infrastructure (Link)
  16. Recharge (2022). ‘From niche to scale’ | EU launches €3bn European Hydrogen Bank with a bang but keeps quiet about the details (accessed in September 2022). (Link)
  17. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission infrastructure (Link)
  18. Gas Infrastructure Europe (2021). Picturing the value of underground gas storage to the European hydrogen system (Link)
  19. Guidehouse (2020) European Hydrogen Backbone (Link)
  1. European Commission (2022). Commission Staff Working Document, SWD (2022) 230 final, Implementing the REPowerEU Action Plan: Investment needs, hydrogen accelerator, and achieving the bio-methane targets (Link)
  2. Gas for Climate recently assesses the options the facilitate the 10 Mt import target by 2030. Gas for Climate (2022), Facilitating hydrogen imports from non-EU countries (Link)
  3. Gas for Climate (2019). The optimal role for gas in a net-zero emissions energy system (Link)
  4. EHB (2021) Analysing future demand, supply, and transport of hydrogen. (Link)
  5. Gas for Climate (2019). The optimal role for gas in a net-zero emissions energy system (Link)
  6. Gas for Climate (2019). Job creation by scaling up renewable gas in Europe. (Link)
  7. This is without accounting for additional measures such as energy efficiency and overall demand reduction.
  8. As the natural gas consumption is supposed to significantly decline by 2050, most of natural gas imports could be replaced by domestically produced biomethane.
  9. Part of the 666 TWh could be supplied by blue hydrogen, i.e. by applying carbon capture and storage technologies on hydrogen production from natural gas. Blue hydrogen could help to accelerate market and infrastructure development as a complementary measure to green hydrogen. However, blue hydrogen would not help with reducing natural gas import dependency of the EU
  10. EHB (2021) Analysing future demand, supply, and transport of hydrogen. (Link)
  11. Gas for Climate (2022) Biomethane production potentials in the EU. (Link)
    Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission network (Link)
  12. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission network (Link)
  13. Gas for Climate (2022) Facilitating hydrogen imports from non-EU countries. (Link)
  14. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission network (Link)
  15. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission network (Link)
  16. Gas for Climate (2023). Assessing the benefits of a pan-European hydrogen transmission network (Link)

End-use decarbonization and energy system integration

Renewable gas can be massively scaled up by 2050. Biomethane should be allocated based on the highest societal value. Hydrogen will be used in hard-to-decarbonise sectors – in industry as feedstock and for high-temperature heating, in the building sector, in power system balancing on long-time scales (e.g. hydrogen peaking plants), and in mobility applications, either as hydrogen or hydrogen-based synthetic fuel (aviation, maritime, heavy-trucking). Hydrogen is a prime candidate to facilitate sector coupling and fits well into the efforts for increased electrification by providing long-term storage and possibly also dispatchable power generation.

Energy security of supply

A substantial part of the current gas imports from Russia (155 bcm in 2021) can be replaced by domestic biomethane production (35 bcm) and renewable hydrogen production and import (50 bcm) by 2030. At the European level, supply potential is sufficient to meet the demand for renewable gases at all time scales (2030, 2040, and 2050), subject to acceleration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) build-out beyond current targets. Individual regions might experience an abundance or lack of sufficient renewable energy and accelerated development of the European Hydrogen Backbone will help reconcile these differences can help to reconcile these differences.

Climate action and meeting climate goals

Gas for Climate fully supports the Fit for 55 package, aimed at a 55% reduction in European emissions by 2030 and the accelerated goals under REPowerEU. Gas for Climate also promotes a target 35 bcm of biomethane and 20 Mt of hydrogen in the European Union by 2030. Scaling up of renewable hydrogen (deployment of electrolysis) and biomethane (driven in large by sequential cropping) production is possible. Renewable gases are the solution in removing barriers to decarbonisation and creating the conditions for a more cost-effective transition. Policymakers are to adapt the European Union’s regulatory framework so that the production of renewable and low-carbon gases is incentivised, and gas infrastructure can fully unleash its great potential in a future integrated energy system.